The Wilson Center’s Brazil Institute and the Institute for Health Policy Studies hosted a discussion of what better integration of the public and private healthcare systems could mean for Brazil, during COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Brazil, which guarantees universal access to healthcare through its public system (SUS), is also home to the second largest private healthcare market in the world. The two systems essentially operate in parallel, and have often competed against each other. In recent weeks, however, the COVID-19 crisis has shown that public-private collaboration is possible, and brings real benefits—not only in the immediate context, where collaboration means more hospital beds, doctors, and equipment made available where Brazil needs them most; but also in the longer run, where public-private partnership can help drive innovation and improve efficiency. The panelists discussed the benefits of public-private partnerships, and what obstacles, such as Brazil’s stark inequality and the need for improved management within the systems, must be addressed.